In theory, if you eat a healthful diet you don’t need to supplement. But in reality, the fact is that most people don’t get enough essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals in their diet. There are a several reasons for this, among them: most Americans eat the Standard American Diet, or SAD, which is typically high in fat, sugar, and processed carbohydrates. Secondly, erosion and unwise farming methods have depleted our topsoil of its mineral content, resulting in mineral-deficient fruits and vegetables. Most of us suffer from nutrient deficiencies that are not low enough to cause disease, but certainly low enough to keep us from achieving optimum health.
All of the terms and acronyms you mention are basically names for the same thing: omega-3 fatty acids. What differs is the type of omega 3 and the source.

Omega-3 essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are a type of “good fat.” They’ve been studied extensively for decades for their anti-inflammatory effects and support for heart health. A growing body of evidence suggests that Omega-3s also provide important benefits for mental and nervous, immune, and eye health.
Omega-3s are considered “essential” because our bodies need them for health but are unable to produce them. Instead, they must be obtained through either food or supplements. They’re commonly called fish oil because primary sources include cold water fish such as salmon, mackerel, and tuna. Other sources include krill, flaxseed, hemp, dark green vegetables, and nuts. The most common omega-3s are DHA, EPA, and ALA.

Minerals have a role in nearly every bodily function, from building healthy bones and teeth, to energy production, to strengthening the immune system. As inorganic substances, our bodies can’t make minerals, so they have to be ingested in the foods we eat. Unfortunately, most of today’s foods are grown from mineral-deficient topsoil and crops, so we’re not getting all the minerals we need to reach optimum health.
Colloidal minerals derived from plant matter are the smallest and most bioavailable mineral form. Plant-derived colloidal minerals can include naturally-occurring heavy metals such as copper, selenium, and zinc. Whereas higher concentrations are harmful, trace amounts these elements (e.g., copper, selenium, zinc) are essential to human health.